Food Service Managers Food Service Managers Food service managers are responsible for the daily operation of restaurants or other establishments that prepare and serve food and beverages. They direct staff to ensure that customers are satisfied with their dining experience, and they manage the business to ensure that it is profitable. Lodging Managers Lodging Managers Lodging managers ensure that guests on vacation or business travel have a pleasant experience at a hotel, motel, or other types of establishment with accommodations.
Definition[ edit ] Constitution of the World Health Organization[ edit ] The preamble of the World Health Organization WHO Constitution defines health broadly as "a state of complete physical, mental and social well-being and not merely the absence of disease or infirmity. Grad credits the WHO Constitution as "claiming Universal Declaration of Human Rights[ edit ] Article 25 of the United Nations' Universal Declaration of Human Rights states that "Everyone has the right to a standard of living adequate for the health and well-being of himself and of his family, including food, clothing, housing and medical care and necessary social services.
United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights Navanethem Pillay writes that the Universal Declaration of Human Rights "enshrines a vision that requires taking all human rights—civil, political, economic, social, or cultural—as an indivisible and organic whole, inseparable and interdependent.
The Convention calls upon States to "Prohibit and to eliminate racial discrimination in all its forms and to guarantee the right of everyone, without distinction as to race, colour, or national or ethnic origin, to equality before the law," and references under this provision "The right to public health, medical care, social security and social services.
The steps to be taken by the States Parties to the present Covenant to achieve the full realization of this right shall include those necessary for: The reduction of the stillbirth-rate and of infant mortality and for the healthy development of the child; The improvement of all aspects of environmental and industrial hygiene; The prevention, treatment and control of epidemicendemicoccupational and other diseases; The creation of conditions which would assure to all medical service and medical attention in the event of sickness.
The General Comment makes the direct clarification that "the right to health is not to be understood as a right to be healthy. Article 12 tasks the State with recognizing that each individual holds an inherent right to the best feasible standard of health, and itemizes at least in part the 'freedoms from' and 'entitlements to' that accompany such a right; however, it does not charge the State with ensuring that all individuals, in fact, are fully healthy, nor that all individuals have made full recognition of the rights and opportunities enumerated in the right to health.
Relation to other rights[ edit ] Like the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, the General Comment clarifies the interrelated nature of human rights, stating that, "the right to health is closely related to and dependent upon the realization of other human rights," and thereby underscoring the importance of advancements in other entitlements such as the rights to food, work, housing, life, non-discrimination, human dignity, and access to importance, among others, towards the recognition of the right to health.
Similarly, the General Comment acknowledges that "the right to health embraces a wide range of socio-economic factors that promote conditions in which people can lead a healthy life, and extends to the underlying determinants of health. Health equity[ edit ] The General Comment also makes additional reference to the question of health equitya concept not addressed in the initial International Covenant.
The document notes, "The Covenant proscribes any discrimination in access to health care and underlying determinants of health, as well as to means and entitlements for their procurement. Responsibilities of states and international organizations[ edit ] Subsequent sections of the General Comment detail the obligations of nations and international organizations towards a right to health.
The obligations of nations are placed into three categories: International obligations include allowing for the enjoyment of health in other countries; preventing violations of health in other countries; cooperating in the provision of humanitarian aid for disasters and emergencies; and refraining from use of embargoes on medical goods or personnel as an act of political or economic influence.
Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination Against Women[ edit ] Article 12 of the United Nations Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women outlines women's protection from gender discrimination when receiving health services and women's entitlement to specific gender-related healthcare provisions.
The full text of Article 12 states: States Parties shall take all appropriate measures to eliminate discrimination against women in the field of health care in order to ensure, on a basis of equality of men and women, access to health care services, including those related to family planning.
Notwithstanding the provisions of paragraph I of this article, States Parties shall ensure to women appropriate services in connection with pregnancy, confinement and the post-natal period, granting free services where necessary, as well as adequate nutrition during pregnancy and lactation.
Convention on the Rights of the Child[ edit ] Health is mentioned on several instances in the Convention on the Rights of the Child Article 3 calls upon parties to ensure that institutions and facilities for the care of children adhere to health standards.
Article 23 makes specific reference to the rights of disabled children, in which it includes health services, rehabilitation, preventive care. Article 24 outlines child health in detail, and states, "Parties recognize the right of the child to the enjoyment of the highest attainable standard of health and to facilities for the treatment of illness and rehabilitation of health.
States shall strive to ensure that no child is deprived of his or her right of access to such health care services. Further provisions specify that health care for the disabled should be made available in local communities and that care should be geographically equitable, with additional statements against the denial or unequal provision of health services including "food and fluids" and "life insurance" on the basis of disability.
Definitions in academic literature[ edit ] While most human rights are theoretically framed as negative rights, meaning that they are areas upon which society cannot interfere or restrict by political action, Mervyn Susser contends that the right to health is a particularly unique and challenging right because it is often expressed as a positive right, where society bears an obligation to provide certain resources and opportunities to the general population.
Susser further sets out four provisions that he sees as covered under a right to health: He is careful to note here that, while this likely entails some minimum standard of access to health resources, it does not guarantee or necessitate an equitable state of health for each person due to inherent biological differences in health status.
However, Hunt does concede that some positive rights, such as the responsibility of society to pay special attention to the health needs of the underserved and vulnerable, are included in the right to health. Poor people are not receiving the same treatment, if any at all, as the more financially fortunate.
The high costs of medicine and treatment make it problematic for poor countries to receive equal care. He states, "Excellence without equity looms as the chief human-rights dilemma of health care in the 21st century. For instance, particularly in countries with weak rule of law, healthcare providers are often forced to perform procedures which negate their morals, deny marginalized groups the best possible standards of care, breach patient confidentiality, and conceal crimes against humanity and torture.
However, in transitional countries newly formed countries undergoing reformand other settings with weak rule of law, may be limited.
Additionally, Barlow contends that rights establish duties upon others to protect or guarantee them, and that it is unclear who holds the social responsibility for the right to health.
He defines a right as one that is to be defended at all costs, and a concept that is defined and interpreted by the judicial system.
Making healthcare a right would require governments to spend a large portion of its resources to provide its citizens with it.
He asserts that the healthcare system is based on the erroneous assumption of unlimited resources. Limited resources inhibits governments from providing everyone with adequate healthcare, especially in the long term. Attempting to provide "beneficial" healthcare to all people utilizing limited resources could lead to economical collapse.
Lamm asserts that access to healthcare but a small part in producing a healthy society, and to create a healthy society, resources should also be spent on social resources.Support New America — We are dedicated to renewing America by continuing the quest to realize our nation's highest ideals, honestly confronting the challenges caused by rapid technological and social change, and seizing the opportunities those changes create.
Stephen Wolfram shares what he learned in researching Ada Lovelace's life, writings about the Analytical Engine, and computation of Bernoulli numbers. There are some truths that I strive to preach, for lack of a better word, in today's information-culture wars propagated in our corrupt mainstream media.
JSTOR is a digital library of academic journals, books, and primary sources. [Content note: hostility toward social justice, discussion of various prejudices] “Words!
Words! Words! I’m so sick of words! I get words all day through. Randolph Bourne left an unfinished, unpaginated draft of The State when he died during the flu pandemic of The draft was published posthumously, with some material incorrectly ordered, in Untimely Papers ().
This edition follows the corrected ordering used in most printed editions of Bourne’s work.